Salatul Janzah is Fard Kafayah, that is, if one prays the prayer than all are bareeuz zimma [free of the responsiblity] otherwise all those who received the news but did not come are sinners. Jammat is not a condition for this prayer, it is sufficient even if one person prays, and to deny the fardiat, compulsion, of this salah is kufr, an act of disbelief.
How to Pray the Janazah (funeral) Prayer
1 – Say first Takbeer (‘Allahu Akbar’) and raise both hands up to your earlobes and then place your right hand over your left hand
2 – Seek refuge from the Shaytan (devil)
I seek refuge in Allah from the accursed Shaitan
3 – Recite Surah Al-Fatihah followed by a short surah or part of a surah
In the name of Allah , the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful. [All] praise is [due] to Allah , Lord of the worlds – The Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful, Sovereign of the Day of Recompense. It is You we worship and You we ask for help. Guide us to the straight path – The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray.
4 – Say second Takbeer. You can either choose to raise your hands again up to your earlobes or leave them as is. Both are permissible.
5 – Recite Darood on Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) as one does at the end of the prayer
O Allah, let Your Peace come upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as you have brought peace to Ibrahim and his family. Truly, You are Praiseworthy and Glorious. Allah, bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as you have blessed Ibrahim and his family. Truly, You are Praiseworthy and Glorious.
6 – Say third Takbeer. You can either choose to raise your hands again up to your earlobes or leave them as is. Both are permissible.
7 – Make supplication (du’a) for the deceased. There are a number of recommended supplications from the Prophet (pbuh). The Du’a given below is for adult Man or Woman:
O Allah, forgive our living and our dead, those present and those absent, our young and our old, our males and our females. O Allah, whom among us You keep alive, then let such a life be upon Islam, and whom among us You take unto Yourself, then let such a death be upon faith. O Allah, do not deprive us of his reward and do not let us stray after him’.
Du’a for a boy:
Oh! Allah, make him (this child) a source for our salvation and make him a source of reward and treasure for us and make him an intercessor for us and one whose intercession is accepted.
Du’a for a girl:
Oh! Allah, make her (this child) a source for our salvation and make her a source of reward and treasure for us and make her an intercessor for us and one whose intercession is accepted.
8 – Say fourth Takbeer and pause for a little while. You can either choose to raise your hands again up to your earlobes or leave them as is. Both are permissible. Some scholars say to recite general supplications for yourself, family, friends, and all Muslims during this period.
9 – Then end by saying one Tasleem to the right (‘Assalaamu ‘alaykum wa rahmat-Allaah’). Doing it on both sides as in regular prayer is also ok.
Ahkam of Janazah
1) Some people pray while wearing shoes and many people pray Janzah while standing on the shoes. If one prays wearing the shoes then it is necessary that the shoes and the earth underneath be pure and if one stands on the shoes then it is necessary that the shoes be pure.
2) There is more ihtiyat (care) that one does not pray while standing on the shoes. Stand on the earth, if you want you can stand upon your handkerchief.
3) It is necessary for the body of the deceased to be present; the janzah of the absent is not permissible
4) It is mustahab that the Imam stand in front of the chest of the deceased.
5) Several janzah maybe prayed at the same time; there is the option of putting the deceased in a row so that the chest of all is in front of the imam or in a line so that ones’ head is in line with the other’s feet and the others’ feet is in line with the others’ head. Wa ala hazal qayas (and presume the rest on this)
6) It is better to make three saf (rows) as it is mentioned in the Hadith that, “Whosevers’ salatul janzah was read by three saf, they will be forgiven.”
7) If there are, for example, seven people, then one should become the Imam, three people should stand in the first saf, two in the second saf, and one in the last saf (Guniyah)
8) In Janzah, the last saf is the best out of all the saf. [Durre Mukhtar]
9) Masbooq, one who missed some takbeer, should say the rest of his takbeer after the Imam says salaam, and he should say only the takbeer without the supplicatoins if he fears that people while start to give shoulder to the janzah before he finishes all the supplications. [Durre Mukhtar]
10) One can join the janzah even after the fourth takbber until the Imam has not said salaam. After the salaam of the Imam, he should say Allahu Akbar thrice (Duree Mukhtar) and say salaam.
11) The duaa for a boy or girl will be read for whoever died in a condition of madness in which they were born in or madness which occurred before puberty and lasted until death.
12) There is Gusul, Kafan, and Janzah for the child of a muslim whose akhtar (most) body had come out otherwise the child will be bathed, covered in sheet, and buried without gusul, kafan and salah. Akthar (most), from the head, means from the head to the chest; so there is no janzah for the child who was born crying from the head but passed away before the chest came out, and from the feet, akthar means from the feet to the back. A child born alive or dead will be given a name and on the day of Qayamat the child will be resurrected.