Fitr means to break the fast, or not to keep fast. Allâh has fixed a sadaqah (charity) over His servants: After the completion of Ramadaan and on the rejoicing of breaking the fast, this charity should be paid as a mark of gratitude. This is called Sadaqat-ul-fitr. The ‘Eid that comes after the Ramadaan is called ‘Eid-ul-Fitr, as it is the day of rejoicing over the completion of the fast.
On what persons is sadaqat-ul-fitr waajib?
Sadaqat-ul-Fitr is waajib on every free Muslim when he or she owns property to the amount of nisaab.
Is that the same nisaab as that of zakaah or something else?
The nisaab of zakaah and nisaab of sadaqat-ul-fitr are the same. But there is a difference between the nisaab of zakaah and that of sadaqat-ul-fitr. For zakaah, it becomes fard when a person owns a certain quantity of silver, gold, or merchandise only. But for sadaqat-ul-fitr to be waajib, all one’s possessions are counted and all sorts of things are taken into account. It is necessary for both the nisaabs that one should be free from all sorts of burdens of debts and have property in excess of one’s necessary requirements.
So, if a person has extra clothes, other than those clothes used by him, or has some extra utensils of copper, brass, china, clay, etc., or has an occupied house, or some other property or goods exceeding his necessary and personal requirements, and the value of these things equals or exceeds the amount of nisaab, no zakaah is (necessarily) fard on that, but sadaqat-ul-fitr will be waajib. The condition of the passing of one year is also not necessary over the nisaab of sadaqat-ul-fitr. The payment of sadaqat-ul-fitr becomes waajib even if one becomes possessor of the nisaab the same day.